Salvia elegans - Interesting journal article..

This is the place to discuss Salvia divinorum, splendins, and the other psychoactive salvias.
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Ashoka
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Salvia elegans - Interesting journal article.. -

Post by Ashoka » Wed Apr 05, 2006 8:17 pm

This looks interesting..

The hydroalcoholic extract of Salvia elegans induces anxiolytic- and antidepressant-like effects in rats.

Mora S, Millan R, Lungenstrass H, Diaz-Veliz G, Moran JA, Herrera-Ruiz M, Tortoriello J.

Laboratorio de Farmacologia del Comportamiento, Programa de Farmacologia Molecular y Clinica, Instituto de Ciencias Biomedicas, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Chile, Chile.

Behavioral effects of a hydroalcoholic (60% ethanol) extract from the leaves of Salvia elegans Vahl (Lamiaceae) were studied in male Sprague-Dawley rats. The extract was administered intraperitoneally and its effects on spontaneous motor activity (total motility, locomotion, rearing and grooming behavior) were monitored. Putative anxiolytic and antidepressant properties of Salvia elegans were studied in the elevated plus-maze test (EPM) and in the forced swimming test (FST), respectively. Deleterious effects of Salvia elegans on learning and memory were also studied by using active and passive avoidance paradigms. The results revealed that all doses (3.12, 12.5, 25 and 50mg/kg) of the extract caused a significant decrease in total motility, locomotion, rearing and grooming behavior. Only the dose of 12.5mg/kg increased the exploration of the EPM open arms in a similar way to that of diazepam (1mg/kg). In the FST, all doses of the extract induced a reduction of immobility, in a similar way to that of fluoxetine (10mg/kg) and imipramine (12.5mg/kg), along with a significant increase in the time spent in swimming behavior. Acquisition of active avoidance responses was disrupted by pre-treatment with the extract, but retention of a passive avoidance response was not significantly modified. These results suggest that some of the components of the hydroalcoholic extract of Salvia elegans have psychotropic properties, which deserve further investigation.

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Emphasis by me.. ;)

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Ashoka
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Re: Salvia elegans - Interesting journal article.. -

Post by Ashoka » Fri Apr 07, 2006 6:21 pm

Hmm.. No appearant interest. Well, this Salvia is also known as Pineapple sage and is used in salats and as a spice. It tastes like.. drumroll.. surprise.. pineapple. Could prove to be an interesting additive to a smoking mixture.

Here's an extract from the article on the active substance in this plant:
Until now, there was just one pharmacological report about the biological effects produced by Salvia elegans. That report demonstrated the ability of the methanolic extract to bind with cholinergic receptors on CNS of humans. Particularly, the extract was able to displace [3H]-(N)-scopolamine from muscarinic receptors, which could indicate the presence of some chemical compound with cholinergic activity (Wake et al., 2000). Despite the fact that the substance with binding abilities is still unknown, leaving undefined whether there is an agonist or antagonist relation upon the receptors, the information is important because the cholinergic neurons located in the septum participate in mood states such as: waking up, the motivation and vegetative functions, through nervous pathways that receive innervation from mesencephalyc structures and from the brain stem. These neurons integrate the information for the hippocampus, using the septo-hypocampal cholinergic pathway, allowing a modulation of the response of hippocampus directed to the brain cortex. This last group of pathways participates in such different behavioral processes as learning, motivation, exploration and anxiety (Dutar et al., 1995); which could be part of the fundamental principle of findings obtained in the behavioral models here studied with Salvia elegans.

jacky
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Re: Salvia elegans - Interesting journal article.. -

Post by jacky » Sat Apr 08, 2006 3:18 pm

heres another salvia species that is suspected of at least a painkilling effect:


Both extract forms of Salvia nemorosa showed marked anti-nociceptive activities in the writhing test. There were no significant difference between the effect of the aqueous (0.5 mg/kg) and the ethanolic extract (1 and 2 mg/kg) compared with morphine (10 mg/kg) in reducing writhes numbers. Naloxone (1 mg/kg, SC) pretreatment only reduced the anti-nociceptive activities of the aqueous extract and morphine (Fig. 2).

Discussion

Present results indicate that the aqueous and ethanolic extracts of the aerial parts of S. nemorosa have anti-nociceptive activities with different profiles.

The maximum tolerated dose of the aqueous extract was found to be much higher than the ethanolic extract. This indicates that the aqueous extract is probably less toxic and better tolerated than the other extract.

Opioid agents exert their analgesic effects via supraspinal (µ1, ?3, d1, d2) and spinal (µ2, ?1, d2) receptors.13 Hot-plate test is a specific central anti-nociceptive test.14 The aqueous extract showed anti-nociceptive activity in the hot-plate test, and this effect was inhibited by naloxone. Therefore, it is possible that the extract had exerted its effect through central opioid receptors and promoted the release of endogenous opiopeptides.

Both extracts showed significant anti-nociceptive activities in the writhing test. They reduced the number of writhes more than 90%. In this test, the extracts showed considerable anti-nociceptive activity similar to morphine. Other substances such as opioid agonists, opioid partial agonists and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents show their anti-nociceptive activity in the writhing test.15 Since the anti-nociceptive activity of the ethanolic extract was not inhibited by naloxone, it means that they had no opioid effects and it is likely that the effect of the extracts is similar to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

It is concluded that the aqueous and ethanolic extracts of the aerial parts of S. nemorosa have significant anti-nociceptive effects. The aqueous extract has central and peripheral anti-nociceptive activity, which is partially mediated by opioid receptors. The ethanolic extract, however, possibly has only peripheral anti-nociceptive effects.

Acknowledgment

The authors are thankful to Dr. M. Ramezani, Assistant Professor, Department of Pharmaco-gnosy, School of Pharmacy, Mashhad, for his guidance.

References


heres another:

alvia leriifolia; morphine dependence; diazepam; aminophylline; medicinal plants

Abstract
The effect of Salvia leriifolia leaf extract on morphine dependence was investigated in mice. Dependence was induced using subcutaneous injections of morphine daily for 3 days. On day 4, morphine was injected 2 h before the intraperitoneal injection of naloxone. The number of episodes of jumping during the 30 min after injection of naloxone was considered as the intensity of the withdrawal syndrome. The ethanol extract reduced the number of jumping episodes dose-dependently. The extract at a dose of 500 mg/kg was as effective as a dose of 5 mg/kg of diazepam in reducing the number of jumping episodes. The effect of the extract was blocked by aminophylline (20 mg/kg), a non-selective antagonist of adenosine receptors. It is concluded that the ethanol extract of S. leriifolia leaves could diminish the with-drawal syndrome of morphine. Copyright © 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Received: 27 August 1998; Accepted: 11 August 1999


theres a few more salvia species suspected of interaction with opioid receptors....Ill find and post sometime...

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Eduard
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Re: Salvia elegans - Interesting journal article.. -

Post by Eduard » Sun Apr 09, 2006 2:41 pm

Very interesting reading. Thanks guys..

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skullfarmer
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Re: Salvia elegans - Interesting journal article.. -

Post by skullfarmer » Sat Apr 15, 2006 4:41 pm

Ashoka wrote:This looks interesting..

The hydroalcoholic extract of Salvia elegans induces anxiolytic- and antidepressant-like effects in rats.
first off,how in the hell do you know you have a depressed rat?:disappointed:

426exMX
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Re: Salvia elegans - Interesting journal article.. -

Post by 426exMX » Sat Apr 15, 2006 4:51 pm

The usual....less intrest in cheese, avoids the exercise wheel...and the suicidal ones, they go around looking for the mousetraps ;)

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420_4life
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Re: Salvia elegans - Interesting journal article.. -

Post by 420_4life » Sat Apr 15, 2006 4:55 pm

Alexander Shulgin believes in animal testing, but only to determine the toxicity of the substance being administered. I agree with him that there is no need to test psycoactivity or any psycological effects of drugs on animals, since our brain chemistry is different and an observer able to translate the effects is required for any real progress to be made.
Sure they might be able to hook all this shit up its brain and figure out what neurotransmitters are being effected by this chemical, but again how much can that tell you, there are so many specific receptors that our insturments do not know about, and again a human observer is required.

peace
jackpot

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hekura
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Re: Salvia elegans - Interesting journal article.. -

Post by hekura » Wed Apr 19, 2006 9:49 pm

I'm reading this one also with a lot of interest because salvia is being grown as a decorative plant here in very many varieties. I haven't checked too much on these mentioned, but the splendens is strongly here too.

Glad to read this info. Looks like salvia is just good for you in many different ways and forms.

zakmalados
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Re: Salvia elegans - Interesting journal article.. -

Post by zakmalados » Thu Apr 20, 2006 6:56 pm

You're right, 420. Thing is, they want to maintain the position that it would be wrong and dangerous to use psychoactive drugs, so we test them on whatever and try to extrapolate results. Or that's what I would assume.

Like you said, if it doesn't kill the rat, find a more appropriate test subject, next.

Imagine doing that for a living (being a test subject, I mean..)

Zak

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teeko
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Re: Salvia elegans - Interesting journal article.. -

Post by teeko » Mon Apr 14, 2008 11:13 am

I acutally got a letter in the mail last Friday asking if i wanted to be part of an anxiety clinical trial. They have been sending me things like this for years, anxiety, menopause, whatever (im Male and 27 years old, no menopause here).

In the past, i have ALMOST joined the clinical study crowd many times, they give you food, medicine, free medical care and often money. And sometimes, (i almost tried a sleep dep study, but said fuck it, ima go get high instead) and they even give you a place to sleep!

back to the topic......

I just got a VERY good looking and sized elegans last night! mmmm pinapple!
also just got a PINK friesland nemmy, and a WHITE Salvia Spp.?

will update and assay soon.
thisisnotanimage

All lies contain truth.

All truths are circumstantial.

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